2015 EBS 인터넷수능 영어독해연습_1
01강 글의 목적·주장
Thank you for running my article, “Strengthening Your Brand for the 21st Century.” I enjoyed working on this piece and would enjoy the opportunity to work on similar projects in the future. You might have already noticed the mistake in the website address provided as a reference for the readers. Because it was a primary resource, I wanted to bring it to your attention in case you are considering submitting a correction in your next issue. I would hate for readers to go to an inappropriate or irrelevant website to look for answers to their questions. I referred to the original submission I sent over and was relieved to know that the mistake was not on my end. I think the article turned out well with the exception of the website mishap. Again, I appreciate the opportunity to work on this assignment.
Researchers tend to measure whether or not teachers have learned the training content but have focused little on their use of this content in their classrooms. In order for successful implementation of training to occur, teachers must first learn the content, but this is only the first step and evaluating the effectiveness of training based on this step only would likely provide an inaccurate conclusion. In addition, many assessments of training effectiveness have focused on teacher attitudes toward the training experience, which can contribute to the body of knowledge on this topic but leaves out a crucial component: implementation. What a teacher expects to do with the content and what they actually do with it in practice may be very different. Evaluation of the effectiveness of training should include analysis of the outcomes in terms of classroom implementation.
Last Tuesday, I observed a group of teenagers from our neighborhood conducting a peaceful protest in front of your plant. They said they were protesting your toxics release inventory (TRI) data, which had been reported in the local newspaper the previous day. In addition to marching near your front gate, they were chanting and carrying signs advocating “Environmental Justice” and “Clear the Air for Everyone.” I believe that the teens were conducting their protest responsibly. As your car approached the plant, I was surprised to see you drive dangerously close to the protesters. I also heard you insult the protesters. I believe you owe these young citizens an apology. If your plant is releasing toxic vapors affecting our health, then you must stop it immediately. If you do not apologize, I will encourage the protesters to bring this matter to the attention of our city and state government officials.
I now find it interesting and a bit amusing that one of my first encounters with newspapers was one of disrespect. In the early days of our brand, Jay and I tried to advertise for distributors in the classified sections of newspapers. The advertisement simply read: “Make $1,000 a month part time. Complete training available.” A lot of papers wouldn’t run our ad because we couldn’t guarantee the claim. I responded that I couldn’t guarantee the income but at least the opportunity was there for anyone who wanted to work. A lot of people were disrespectful to Jay and me and our business. They ridiculed us and said that our business would never work. We learned to just ignore people like that. If you believe in what you’re doing, you have to move forward against the disrespectful crowd. As Jay liked to say, “The dogs may bark, but the caravan moves on.”
I read the review of Social Distortion by Jack Churchill and couldn’t have been more let down. It felt like a book report written by a child. Churchill made no attempt to describe parts of the set list, or the highs and lows of the show, but instead wrote, “The songs all sound the same.” He ignored the parts of the show where Mike Ness stopped to talk about the inspiration for some of his songs and opened up to the audience. The only reason I can think of that you would even print this uninspired review is to use the photos that were taken at the show. I can appreciate a negative review of a concert as long as it is well reasoned, but there is no explanation or reason here. It is just a lazy and tired excuse for an article. I ask that you please take more care in choosing what you print.
Counselors who have not clarified their employers’ access to records in advance of counseling and are working without a corresponding agreement with their clients about access are likely to find themselves caught between two principles which have both ethical and legal implications. The usual principle is that records made on materials provided by an employer or in the employer’s time belong to that employer. However, the principles and law of confidentiality suggest that there are restrictions on how the employer exercises that ownership. Ownership is not necessarily the same as unlimited control and access. To break a confidence could create legal liabilities for the counselor. Counselors should be cautious about giving employers access to confidential information. In order to avoid conflicting responsibilities to the client and the employer, a prudent counselor will establish clear guidelines which are known to both the employer and the client about who, other than the client, will have access to records of counseling.
02강 글의 요지·시사점
Recent studies of experience and the brain have begun to produce some very interesting details. For instance, age is no object. While it was natural to try the experiment first with very young rats, enrichment was later tried with rats of all ages. Even elderly rats show brain changes in response to experience, contrary to the adage about old dogs and new tricks. Also, since most of the changes in structure, at all ages, were in the visual part of the brain, it seemed possible that merely seeing more could make the difference. Rats were kept in small cages within the larger “enriched environment” cages, from which they could watch the toys and other rats but not participate. Their brains showed no changes. Evidently, we must grapple with the world to change the brain, not just sit back passively watching.
One of the most common negotiating mistakes is to announce that you have found the solution to the problem. City planners unveil their scheme for a new waste-disposal site without having involved the residents of the surrounding neighborhood; in response, a citizens’ group immediately organizes to fight the project. Management announces a streamlined work plan without having consulted its employees; the workers secretly sabotage the plan. The national budget director and the President’s chief of staff closet themselves with six congressional leaders and emerge with an agreed-upon set of budget cuts; members of Congress who weren’t involved denounce the agreement and reject it in the subsequent vote. So, too, your negotiating counterparts are likely to reject your proposal if they have no role in shaping it.
Recently, as traffic volumes have grown, and with new highway building increasingly unaffordable or undesirable, some agencies have begun adding new lanes to highways by either eliminating the shoulder lane or making the existing lanes narrower. In theory, this is riskier because on narrow lanes there is a greater chance of one car drifting into another. There is literally less room for error. On the other hand, wider lanes, which are presumably safer, have been shown to increase speed and may encourage drivers to drive less cautiously. Indeed, some reports have even suggested that lanes wider than the typical U.S. twelve-foot standard may actually be less safe. So far, studies that have looked into the narrowing of highway lanes have come to mixed conclusions on whether the new layouts are more or less safe. In some cases, the difference was not statistically significant.
Psychologists have frequently tested the notion that people’s personalities cause them to exhibit consistently the same behavioral patterns in a variety of situations. In one study, for example, counselors working at a summer camp for teenage boys were asked to secretly note down the degree to which the boys displayed various forms of extroverted behavior, such as talking during mealtimes, seeking the limelight, and initiating conversations. The researchers then carefully analyzed the data by comparing the boys’ level of extroversion on odd and even days. The ‘personality causes behavior’ theory predicts there would be a high level of consistency in the boys’ actions, with the extroverted teenagers constantly chatting away and the introverted ones repeatedly hiding away in the corner. In fact, the results failed to show any evidence of such consistency. On one day, one of the boys would be full of beans and very chatty, while on the next day the very same boy was quiet and withdrawn.
As consultants, my colleagues and I have invested considerable effort in advising business and government leaders on how to create more competitive economies. We have tried to do so in a manner that is respectful of local heritages and institutions. Time and again, we have made strong arguments for the need to change specific policies, strategies, actions or modes of communication. For the most part, the leaders with whom we have had the privilege of working have acknowledged the validity of our perspective. We have learned, however, that good answers to the pressing questions of economic development are not sufficient to engender the change needed to reverse the tides of poorly performing economies. Individuals will often accept intellectual arguments, understand their need to change, and express commitment to changing, but then resort to what is familiar. This tendency to revert to the familiar is not a cultural trait, but it is indicative of some of the deeper challenges faced by those who wish to promote a different, more prosperous vision of the future.
Unlike oil, we can’t mine hydrogen gas from the Earth. The hydrogen that is present has all already “burned” ─ that is, combined with oxygen to make water (H2O), or with carbon to make sugars, starches, and hydrocarbons (including plant matter, wood, oil, and natural gas). To use hydrogen we have to separate the hydrogen from the other atoms. We can remove the hydrogen from water by running electric current through it ─ a process called electrolysis. But that process takes energy, and when we use the released hydrogen as fuel, we get back only 30% to 40% of the energy that we put in; the rest is wasted as heat. Beware of inventions that claim to use ordinary water as fuel; these usually obtain the hydrogen by using other energy to separate it from water, by electrolysis or use of another fuel such as a purified metal.
03강 글의 주제·제목
Did you know that it takes two calories of fossil fuel to produce one calorie of energy from soybeans? That doesn’t sound like a very good deal until you learn that it takes fifty-four calories of fossil fuel to produce one calorie of energy from beef. Herein lies a golden opportunity ─ perhaps the overall best opportunity to greatly reduce our global consumption of energy. On average, about twenty times more energy is required to produce meat calories than to produce plant calories. According to an Ohio State University study, even the least efficient plant food is nearly ten times as efficient as the most efficient animal food. Using the more conservative number from the study, we realize that we can produce plant calories with 90 percent less energy from fossil fuels than it takes to produce the same number of meat calories.
It’s been estimated that 25 percent of our workdays are spent immersed in information overload, and indeed, some of that information is bad and some is good. So not only do we lack true downtime, but we also miss true thinking time, which can help us separate the wheat from the chaff. As we habitually use technology (and, let’s admit, demand immediacy) in both retrieving information and tendering our responses, we scatter our attention. I love how Daniel Patrick Forrester, author of Consider: Harnessing the Power of Reflective Thinking in Your Organization, puts it in talking about the myth of multitasking. He writes, “Many of us depend on multitasking as the only way to get everything done. However... you do an injustice to everything and everyone you’re splitting time between. We’re sequential beings, not simultaneous. One thing at a time: it’s been around as a basic principle since the dawn of time!”
Studies indicate that wind turbines kill up to 100,000 birds each year in the United States. Most wind turbines involved in these deaths were built 20 years ago from now outdated designs, and some were built in bird migration corridors. Wind power developers now study bird migration paths in order to avoid them when building wind farms. Newer turbine designs use slower blade rotation speeds and do not provide places for birds to perch or nest, which also reduces bird casualties. In fact, wind power is a very minor cause of bird deaths compared to a number of other causes. Each year, according to Defenders of Wildlife, more than 1.4 billion birds are killed by collisions with buildings and other human structures and by cars, trucks, and cats. And each year coal-burning power plants kill about 14.5 million birds and nuclear power plants about 327,000. Together these numbers total about 1.5 billion birds a year in the United States ─ 15,000 times the number of birds killed by wind turbines.
When we decide to improve ourselves ─ to shake things up ─ we run straight into resistance from autopilot. While the autopilot system in a car can easily be switched off so that the driver can resume control, disabling any part of your personal autopilot requires real effort. Autopilot likes routine and resists change. The more change we impose on ourselves, the more resistance we must overcome. And yet we nearly always shoot for an instant transformation, resolving to be slim, to be neat, to be on time. Such wannabe resolutions require changing scores of behaviors and put us broadly at war with autopilot. Resolving to be slim means changing your habits in almost every eating circumstance: what you eat, how often you eat, how much you eat, the way you eat. Suddenly every action, every choice demands scrutiny, conscious effort, and willpower.
Successful bartering depends on an agreement of value. In order for you to strike an effective trade with your neighbor, you both have to agree that one sheep is worth one coyote-fighting weapon. If you don’t agree on the sheep’s value, it’s going to be hard to make a trade. Bartering also depends on what economists call a double coincidence of wants. The system is most successful when you and a second person both want/need what the other has, at the same moment in time. But what if that’s not the case? What if your neighbor isn’t in the market for more sheep? Maybe his pressing need is a new blanket to keep his baby warm. This complicates things. In order to make the trade, you’d first have to find someone who is willing to trade a blanket for your sheep. Then, you’d turn around and trade the blanket for the weapon. This method of indirect trading is clumsy and more time-intensive, but it can work if everyone agrees on the value of all items involved.
Researchers call the time imbalance between paid work and unpaid domestic chores the “gendered division of labor” and, they say, it’s been stalled for years. In a study of German couples, Berlin economist Miriam Beblo explained to me, even when more egalitarian-minded couples decide to live together ─ before marriage, before children ─ women spend more time doing housework while men enjoy more leisure time. For couples who marry, the scales are tipped even farther, and farther still when the first child arrives. Through the years, I have seen an increasing number of fathers strapping on baby carriers and taking the baby for a walk, shopping for groceries, taking kids to school, and doing the ballet pickup. Surveys are showing that fathers are feeling more time squeeze than mothers. Still, time-use researchers report that the ratio of mothers’ childcare time to fathers’ ranges from 2:1 in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and Norway, to more than 3:1 in Estonia, Austria, France, and Palestine, to nearly 10:1 in South Africa.
04강 내용 일치·불일치 판단 ⑴
Teen Biking Is Looking for Amazing Leaders!
Teen Biking is looking for enthusiastic bike trip leaders possessing good sense, endless energy, and a great enthusiasm for travel.
- Teen Biking is a summer bicycle touring program for youth ages 12-18.
- Our trips are 2-8 weeks long and we travel in small groups of 12 teens with 2 trip leaders.
- Lots of experience working with teens in a summer program
- Over 21 years of age
- A love of biking and outdoor adventures
- Lifeguard certifications
- Must be a positive role model in the lives of teens
- Basic understanding of bike mechanics (we can teach you the more advanced stuff)
■ Every year we receive hundreds of applications for a limited number of available positions. In order to make the process of identifying the best applicants more efficient, we gather our applications only online.
■ For more information, please visit our website at www.teenbiking2015.com!
The graph above shows the five most used means of commuting by Cambridge residents in 2001 and 2011. ①Overall, there was an increase in commuters in each category from 2001 to 2011. ②Driving a car or van to work was the most common means of commuting in 2001 and 2011, but the number of commuters who drove a car or van to work showed the smallest increase among the five categories from 2001 to 2011. ③From 2001 to 2011, the number of bicycle commuters showed the largest increase among the five categories, with more than 15,000 bicycle commuters in 2011. ④The number of people who went to work on foot almost doubled from 2001 to 2011 and more than 10,000 people chose to go to work on foot in 2011. ⑤The train was the least used among the five means of commuting in 2001 and 2011, with less than 5,000 commuters in both 2001 and 2011 respectively.
Please join us as we honor Mr. James Cooper!
■ Saturday, May 23, 2015
■ 11:30 a.m. - 2:30 p.m.
■ White Hill Elementary School lunchroom
■ Business casual attire. No jeans or sneakers.
It’s official! Mr. Cooper is retiring after 27 years at White Hill Elementary School and more than 50 years in education. And White Hill Elementary School is having a party!
This party is an opportunity for all the people who graduated from White Hill Elementary School to say goodbye to Mr. Cooper and enjoy a pizza and salad lunch in the lunchroom.
There will also be an opportunity to share stories you have of Mr. Cooper, so please bring a printout of a story you have to leave in the ‘Book of Memories’ or write one when you come.
We hope you will be able to attend!
RSVP by April 10
at 201-8901-3456 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The graph above shows the percentage of Australians who participated in volunteer work in 2010 by age group and gender. ①Overall, women in the age group of 45-54 and men in the age group of 55-64 were more likely to volunteer than those in other age groups of the same gender. ②From the age group of 18-24 to the age group of 45-54, a higher percentage of women participated in volunteer work than men in the same age group. ③Of women aged 18-74, the lowest percentage of women participating in volunteer work was in the age group of 25-34. ④The volunteer rate of men in the age group of 35-44 was higher than that of men in the age group of 45-54, with more than 40 percent of men participating in volunteer work in both groups. ⑤More than 30 percent of both men and women volunteered in the age group of 65-74, and the rates remained above 20 percent in the age group of 75-84.
Robinson Sculpture Garden
The Robinson Sculpture Garden unites Minnesota’s most cherished resources ─ its green space and its cultural life. More than 40 works from the NARO Art Center’s renowned collection are displayed on the 11-acre site. The Garden is a top destination for visitors, who can also enjoy the seasonal displays in the Howard Conservatory located in the Garden.
■ Parking: Pay parking is available in the Robinson Sculpture Garden parking lot and on the street (hourly and metered).
■ Garden Tours: Join a tour guide for an in-depth look at sculptures in the Robinson Sculpture Garden. Meet by the steps at the Park Place entrance to the Garden.
- Time: Saturdays and Sundays at 11:30 a.m.
- Price: Free
The graph above shows the retailer share of books bought by UK consumers during the periods of January-November 2010, January-November 2011, and January-November 2012. ①The market share of Internet-only retailers increased from January-November 2010 to the corresponding period in 2012, reaching over a third of the total market share. ②In January-November 2010, chain bookshops accounted for the largest market share with 30 percent of all book purchases, followed by Internet-only retailers with 25.4 percent. ③This situation was changed in January-November 2011, when 26.7 percent of books were sold through chain bookshops and 30.4 percent of books were sold through Internet-only retailers. ④The market share of supermarkets decreased in January-November 2011 compared to the same period in 2010, but rebounded in January-November 2012. ⑤The bargain bookshop market share showed a consistent decline from January-November 2010 to January-November 2012.
Student Film Project Contest
Green Living Project is excited to open the call for submissions for the Spring 2015 Student Film Project Contest! Student films should cover any sustainability-related topic. The contest is open to middle school through college level students. Students may work in groups or submit solo film projects. Winners will receive a prize package valued up to $1,000 from our prize sponsors.
■ Running Time: All films must be 5 minutes or less in length. The submission will be disqualified if the film is longer than the designated time.
■ Format: Films from digital cameras, camcorders, and mobile phones are all acceptable if they are in .wmv, .avi, .mov, or .mpg format.
■ Submission Deadline: Entries must be uploaded to www.studentfilmcontest.com by 11:59 p.m., May 31, 2015.
Tips for Producing a Great Story
■ Research: find a unique and compelling story
■ Sources: interview multiple sources and include multiple perspectives
The pie charts above show the distribution of time spent by consumers using shopping apps, which are divided into six categories, in December 2011 and December 2012. ①Of the six shopping app categories, online marketplace apps were used the most in December 2011, while retailer apps had the most use in December 2012. ②Retailer app use accounted for 27 percent of the time spent by consumers on shopping apps in December 2012, showing an increase of 12 percentage points compared to December 2011. ③Online marketplace apps showed a drop of 5 percentage points, the biggest drop in usage among all the categories from December 2011 to December 2012. ④From December 2011 to December 2012, the percentage of time spent by consumers using daily deal apps decreased more than the percentage of time spent by them using purchase assistant apps. ⑤Price comparison app use remained the same at 14 percent in December 2011 and December 2012.
05강 내용 일치·불일치 판단 ⑵
There are roughly 166 species in the genus Agave. Although many species are cultivated around the world as decorations, they are native to the arid and semiarid regions between the southwestern United States and northern South America. Agaves reproduce only once and then die. Agaves have a large, circular arrangement of leaves that extend outward from the stem. The leaves tend to be wide and flat with spines on their edges. Because members of the Aloe genus tend to be more familiar to people, agaves are often mistaken for aloes. A difference between agave and aloe is that the leaf of agave is fibrous whereas the leaf of aloe is gelatinous. In central Mexico, the Otom´l- and Nahuatl-speaking cultures have cultivated agaves since the pre-Hispanic period, and the plants continue to hold economic and cultural significance among indigenous peoples.
Born January 13, 1850 in New York City, Charlotte Ray had Native American, European, and African ancestry. Charlotte attended the Institution for the Education of Colored Youth in Washington, D.C. In 1869 she obtained a teaching position at Howard University. She studied corporate law at the University at night, becoming the first female to obtain a law degree at Howard University. She opened her own private practice a short time afterwards. However, the double prejudices ─ against blacks and against women ─ conspired against her, forcing her to close her practice. Nevertheless, she continued to work with other organizations committed to the advocacy of African-Americans and women. Although she did not meet with success as a lawyer, her story has inspired many after her to pursue a career as a barrister. She moved to Woodside, Long Island in 1897, and died of the effects of bronchitis in 1911 at the age of 61.
The Conchos pupfish is not a spring dweller like others within its genus; instead it prefers to occupy streams both large and small, avoiding springs and their surrounding areas. This fish can be found in the upper reaches of the Rio Conchos Basin in Mexico’s Chihuahuan Desert, within the Rio Grande on the U.S.-Mexico border, and in the Devil’s River in western Texas. Overall, the Conchos pupfish is silvery in color, with dark vertical bars on the sides that are characteristic of many pupfish. Males gain some body coloration during the breeding season in particular, when they develop an orange-yellow color on the dorsal fin on their backs. The dorsal fin of the female and all juveniles has a dark spot at its base called an ocellus. Also, the males have a prominent black band at the tip of the tail fin.
The Jumping Frog Jamboree is based on Mark Twain’s famous short story, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.” The event, sponsored by the San Diego Jaycees, starts at 9 a.m. and continues through 4 p.m. at the local fairground. There is a minimal entry fee per person for each frog entered. If a contestant doesn’t have a frog, the fee includes one. Part of the fee is refunded at the end of the event if the frog is returned unharmed. Timers give each frog 30 seconds to make the first jump. The distance between the starting point, which is the middle of the launching pad, and where the frog lands on the third jump is measured. The decision of the judges is final. Contestants need not be present, only the frogs that are jumped in their name. Winners receive trophies for first, second and third place in club, adult and junior categories.
The sport of Ultimate is a fast-paced game played according to a simple set of rules, with no referee. Played with a Frisbee, the game combines elements of soccer, football, and basketball. Every player is a quarterback and every player is a receiver. Ultimate was first played by a group of high school students in 1968 in the parking lot of Columbia High School in Maplewood, New Jersey. Within a few years the sport had spread to colleges throughout the United States; the first intercollegiate Ultimate game took place on November 6, 1972 in New Brunswick, New Jersey, between players from Rutgers and Princeton. A regulation game of Ultimate is played by two teams of seven players on a field measuring 70 yards by 40 yards (64 meters by 36 meters) with 25-yard (23-meter) deep end zones.
Many people think that the travelers’ tree is a kind of palm because its many sturdy trunks very much resemble those of certain palms. This plant’s leaves, however, tell us what it really is: they are distinctively banana-like in size and shape and help to show that it is a member of the bird of paradise family. The travelers’ tree is a native of Madagascar, and now is cultivated widely throughout the world’s tropics. The common name was given to it long ago because the plant accumulates drinkable water within its leaf bases. This water can be collected during times of drought or scarcity. The strong trunks and the central veins of leaves are used in constructing houses in parts of the Old World tropics. Dried leaves provide an adequate roof. Young leaves and starchy fruits are eaten in Africa and Madagascar.
“Come on, Emily!” Mom shouted from the front door. Emily stood in front of her fireplace, just as she had done every morning and evening for the last two months, and time stopped for a few moments. There was a buzz of excitement in the air. Just for a few seconds all the memories of her passageway adventures, which had ended so suddenly all those months ago, returned and as she had done every morning, she wondered whether... just maybe... She reached down and let her fingers run over the cold metal of the fireplace until they found the hidden button. She paused. The button which had opened up her very own secret passage, her entrance to a world of adventures. Would it work today? A shiver of excitement ran down her spine. She shut her eyes, prayed and pushed the button...
Ellie walked to school in her new shoes. ‘I like those,’ Megan whispered. ‘Cool.’ Ellie felt flattered. She knew it was hard to get compliments from Megan and couldn’t hide her huge grin. The two friends had desks side by side at the back. ‘Stop talking, you two,’ said Miss Smith. ‘Bring your books to me if you’ve finished.’ Ellie followed Megan to the front of the class. She always let Megan go first. She was scared stiff when Miss Smith was cross. Miss Smith noticed her new shoes. ‘Those aren’t suitable for school,’ she said, her voice cold. Ellie took a deep breath. ‘They didn’t have black, Miss.’ Her voice came out in a whisper. ‘The school uniform requires black or dark blue lace-ups,’ said Miss Smith. ‘Report to me in proper shoes, please. On Monday.’ She used her quiet-shout voice and Ellie shivered.
The next morning, we mountaineers silently arose in the darkness. It was my first “alpine start.” Skipping breakfast, we shouldered our packs and ropes and were quickly off. Flashlights showed the way as we followed the path toward our peak. After an hour, we left the trail to hike cross-country, just as light began to fill the sky over the toothed ridges to the east. We switched off our flashlights and kept going. As we came over a rise, sunlight touched the highest peaks and, suddenly, there it was: Fin Dome, a mighty tower rising into the sky. To us, it was as glorious as the Matterhorn. It made my heart pound just to see it. This was something quite new, no mere hike or treasure hunt. Well, yes, it was a treasure hunt, for real treasure: a tiny summit, high in the sky. Soon this treasure would be ours.
With our palates destroyed and our homemakers now divorced from the food production process, Americans know nothing about their food. Three generations of us have managed to walk this earth without understanding the fundamentals of food production ─ when to plant seeds, when certain foods are locally in season, how to put up garden produce, what cows, pigs, sheep and chickens eat, how they are slaughtered and processed, or the labor that food production entails. When we are unaware of these things, we are also unaware of the industrialized food system’s destruction of our land and resources, of its abuses of human labor, of its propensity to poison our land, water and bodies with toxic chemicals, of its rapid consumption of our dwindling petroleum resources.
“Hey!” my younger brother, Frankie, yelled, staring at the spaghetti sauce covering him. I scooped some noodles and flung them at him. They landed right in his hair. Frankie scooped up a really big handful of noodles and threw them at me. Well, that was all it took for a wild food fight to be in full swing. Then our dog, Petey, not wanting to be left out of the fun, came bounding into the dining room. Landing on some noodles, his front legs slid one way, his back legs another as he struggled for balance. We were both practically crying with laughter, and I don’t know what possessed me, but I picked up the bowl of remaining spaghetti and turned it over on Petey’s head, and for good measure, pushed it down. Happy as can be, Petey, his head covered in noodles, his body stained red with spaghetti sauce, barked and wagged his tail. What a mess! We laughed so hard we had to hold our stomachs because they hurt from laughing.
According to the format, I drew one name from a hat, and that person had to “call out” another dancer to battle. The dancer who was called out got to decide how many rounds they would battle against each other. The dancers stood on a two-step elevated stage, so there was a natural gap between those who came to dance and those who came to watch. I randomly pulled the name of a well-known dancer named Linx from the hat. People cheered. Instead of simply choosing someone to battle, Linx decided to select his foe randomly by making himself into a human spin-wheel. He propelled himself into a backspin, covered his eyes, and extended his arm above his head. When his body finally stopped spinning, his arm pointed away from the dancers on stage and out at the spectators directly at Dan Tres. “Ohhhhs!” erupted from the crowd as the younger, nimble b-boy accidentally called out the 33 year-old history major, husband, father of three, and respected elder within the hip-hop community, who looked surprised but then immediately started to head for the stage.
Arrive for the interview about 10 minutes early, unaccompanied by a friend or family member. While punctuality is highly valued in the United States, (A) [arrive / arriving] too early is not advised as it may be perceived as being overanxious. After checking in with the receptionist, take a seat and wait for the interviewer’s arrival. While you wait, read company publications usually provided in waiting areas or (B) [engage / engaged] in some other positive activity; be polite and considerate to everyone. The interviewer sometimes asks the receptionist what the applicant did while waiting. If the candidate is snobbish or (C) [rude / rudely] uses the cell phone while waiting, the receptionist is even more likely to report that behavior than when the candidate is friendly and polite.
Theft of hotel towels isn’t high in the hierarchy of world problems, but it can be expensive for hotels. Moral prohibitions against stealing ①prevent most people from stealing towels. Many hotels put their name or logo on their towels. That works as a reputational pressure system; most people don’t want their friends to see obviously ②stolen hotel towels in their bathrooms. Sometimes, though, this has the opposite effect: making towels souvenirs of the hotel and more ③desirable to steal. It’s against the law ④to steal hotel towels, of course, but with the exception of large-scale thefts, the crime will never be prosecuted. The result is ⑤what the scope of defection is higher than hotels want. And large, fluffy towels from better hotels are expensive to replace.
As you know, almost all of our modes of transportation are fueled by oil. Jet fuel comes from oil. Diesel fuel comes from oil. Gasoline comes from oil. Cars, trucks and planes (A) [consider / are considered] the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. True or not they do seem to get the most attention and blame. It does not matter because we all know the age of oil for transportation fuels (B) [is / are] over. Not because of global warming, but because we import more and more oil every year and the cost fluctuates for a variety of reasons constantly hurting our economic stability. So we can all agree, no matter (C) [how / what] you believe about global warming, oil as a fuel has to go. The good news is a viable clean replacement will be supported by all factions of the issue and therefore the only issue is how and when we find that replacement.
Is handwriting instruction important anymore? With the advent of computers and keyboarding over the past two to three decades, many have said that the need for handwriting is not so important anymore ①as computer keyboarding replaces the need for using pen and paper. However, there is a problem with legibility in handwriting ②that the computer has not been able to remedy. Illegible or poorly formed handwriting is seen not only in the infamous “doctor” handwriting but also in educated children and adults. Additionally, there may be reasons ③besides legibility for children to continue to receive proper training in handwriting. The motor skills needed for handwriting ④to contribute to learning in other areas as well, and multisensory handwriting instruction may provide a tool for helping children with learning disabilities. Tucha and Lange cite research ⑤stating that “children who have difficulty producing legible handwriting often experience frustration, lowered self-esteem and a decreased level of motivation.”
Bread is not a “natural” food. It is the result of a complex process of production and technology, and of a refined alimentary civilization that learned to control and utilize nature’s secrets. Bread is a truly great invention, whose secret (A) [known / is known] only to man and to no other living creature. For this reason ancient Mediterranean societies viewed bread as a symbol not only of civilization but of the very identity of man, who distinguishes himself from other animals in (B) [that / which] he knows how to construct his own food. In the language of Homer and the ancient Greeks, “bread eaters” is synonymous with “men.” Already in the Poem of Gilgamesh, a Sumerian text of the second millennium B.C., primitive man becomes civilized when he is no longer limited to consuming foods and drinks available in nature, such as wild herbs, water or milk, but (C) [begins / beginning] to eat bread and drink wine, “artificial” products that he has come to know thanks to a woman who made a gift of them.
How do you find a mentor? You may already be acquainted with someone who would make a good mentor. Maybe there is someone at your work who is in a position ①where you would someday like to have. Or perhaps there is a college professor who might have the time ②to help you along with your journey. You’ll never know until you ask. You don’t have to have a formal discussion, requesting that a person ③become your official mentor with rigorously scheduled appointments and bi-weekly progress reports. Instead, you may want to simply approach the subject by telling the person ④that you are trying to get to a certain point in your life and you would love to have someone’s guidance. Maybe offer to meet for coffee or dinner once in a while and use these meetings as times when you can find out ⑤if he or she thinks you are moving in the right direction.
Investigators as a personality type place a high value on science, process, and learning. They excel at research, using logic and the information gained through their senses to (A) [conquer / ignore] complex problems. Nothing thrills them more than a “big find.” Intellectual, introspective, and exceedingly detail-oriented, investigators are happiest when they’re using their brain power to pursue what they deem as a worthy outcome. They prefer to march to their own beat, and they dislike overly (B) [flexible / structured] environments that necessitate a set response to challenges. Investigators are not interested in leadership, and developing the interpersonal skills necessary to fuel collaboration is a hurdle for many of them. They may feel insecure in their ability to “keep up” in their fields and can react (C) [badly / favorably] when forced to put more important work on hold to complete a task that doesn’t intrigue them.
Tom dislikes his navigation system, even though he agrees that at times it would be useful. But he has no way to ①interact with the system to tailor it to his needs. Even if he can make some high-level choices ─ “fastest,” “shortest,” “most scenic,” or “avoid toll road” ─ he can’t discuss with the system why a particular route is ②chosen. He can’t know why the system thinks route A is better than route B. Does it take into account the long traffic signals and the large number of stop signs? And what if two routes barely ③differ, perhaps by just a minute out of an hour’s journey? He isn’t given ④alternatives that he might well prefer despite a slight cost in time. The system’s methods remain ⑤promising so that even if Tom were tempted to trust it, the silence and secrecy promotes distrust, just as top-down business decisions made without collaboration are distrusted.
It turns out we had completely missed a key component of the immune system,
the peacekeepers. When a parasite is ensconced and initial attempts to expel it are
(A)[successful / unsuccessful], what should the body do? It could fight forever. In some cases this does happen and when it does, the disease and the problems caused by the body’s immune response almost inevitably outweigh the trouble caused by the worm itself. In this context, the body may be better off giving in to the reality that the worm is (B)[absent / present] and learning to tolerate it. The answer appears to be, again and again, that if the parasite survives initially, the body learns to tolerate it. A team of peacekeeper cells calls off the antiparasite armed forces. The peacekeepers balance the response. They (C)[drain / reserve] the body’s energy to fight another day against a more beatable or virulent foe.
Education that respects diversity creates an inclusive safe environment and also engages student motivation. This means creating learning experiences through which learners can ①maintain the integrity of their cultural identity as they succeed in their educational goal. According to Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, teaching and learning strategies that ②promote such experiences are based on the intrinsic motivation framework. However, common teaching and evaluation practices in many schools ③follow extrinsic motivation patterns through the practice of competitive examinations, teach-and-test practices, and academic track placement of students based on grades. This system is based on the assumption that human beings strive to learn and achieve when they are externally rewarded for such behavior. Strongly ④supportive of this network of incentives is the implied value that individual accomplishment merits academic and social rewards. However, an extrinsically based approach to teaching is ⑤effective for many minority students and across many cultures. Using extrinsic reward to motivate students to learn may undermine interest and value for the subject matter being learned.
One of the great cop-outs in life is to avoid making choices. Not choosing can save us from risk. One way that a person can avoid making choices is to let others be their (A) [guide / competitor] for how to live. This is what 19th-century philosopher Nietzsche calls the mentality of the herd. A useful illustration can be gained by watching sheep. A friend of mine once noted that sheep only become really (B) [intelligent / stupid] when they are separated from the flock. They have no guiding principles of their own and thus follow the leader, who also generally has no idea where she is heading. Sheep are programmed genetically to operate as a flock. This has a (C) [destructive / protective] function as it provides some safety for when a wolf comes. If you are in a flock of 100 sheep then the odds are you will not be eaten. If you leave the flock it is a certainty that you will be.
The strengths of e-mail as an online learning tool are many. From the online student’s perspective, perhaps the greatest strength of e-mail is its ability to promote a sense of ①connection with the instructor and the course overall. In an online learning environment, a sense of disconnectedness can often lead to poor quality work or to the student dropping out of the course. Any anxiety a student may be feeling prior to, or during, a course can be ②created through e-mail contact. Because e-mail is asynchronous, another advantage as a learning tool is that it offers a communication medium that ③avoids scheduling conflicts. This ability to communicate at the user’s and instructor’s own ④convenience is one of the highly touted benefits of online education in general. E-mail is one of the tools that allow this benefit to occur. When teaching adults or students located in ⑤various time zones, this asynchronous capability becomes an even more obvious benefit.
09강 지칭 추론
Ever remember being told fairy tales when you were little? William Goldman remembers one ─ a story his father told him when ①he was ten and sick and stuck in bed for three weeks. Every night his father would read him a chapter from S. Morgenstern’s The Princess Bride, and long after ②he grew up he’d remember his father and this story and his fear and excitement. Then, when his son turned ten, ③he gave him a copy. But something went wrong. His son read the first chapter and put the book away, completely bored. And Goldman felt hurt, betrayed, confused by his son’s reactions, and went back to read the book himself for the first time since ④he was ten. He found that his father hadn’t been completely honest with him. Oh, he’d told the story that was in Morgenstern’s book. But when the going got dull, ⑤he skipped ahead to the exciting parts.
During the worst years of apartheid, while Nelson Mandela struggled to survive in jail, Motsohi was still a schoolboy. ①He grew up in a poor family like Mandela’s. Motsohi’s father had begun by working in the mines, but illness forced him to find another occupation. With the help of a benefactor, he became a school principal. A farmer at heart, ②he passed on his love of growing things by encouraging his children to help tend the family garden. It was from these duties, Motsohi told us, that ③he derived “a sense of pride of working on the garden and the fruit trees.” It was then, too, that the first seeds of ambition began to grow in the boy. Motsohi dreamed of going to the university and becoming a doctor. “I was always driven by the pursuit of the good,” ④he explains. “From my childhood, I have always tried to achieve.” For an ambitious achiever, the road ahead in South Africa led nowhere. So Motsohi’s father sent ⑤him to the neighboring country of Lesotho.
While Apelles, a painter of ancient Greece, was being acclaimed at the court of Alexander the Great, Protogenes, the only man worthy to be considered his rival, was living poor and obscure in Rhodes. Apelles went to visit him, but when ①he arrived Protogenes was away from home. The old woman servant asked Apelles who she should tell her master had called on him in ②his absence. In reply Apelles took a brush and traced upon a panel, with a single continuous line, a shape of extreme delicacy. When Protogenes returned and saw the panel ③he remarked, “Only Apelles could have drawn that line.” He then drew an even finer line inside that of Apelles, telling the old woman to show it to ④his visitor if he returned. In due course Apelles came back and added a third line of even greater fineness between the first two. When Protogenes saw it, ⑤he admitted that Apelles was his master.
If he had been interested in the practical application of ①his innovative research, Joseph Henry might have built the first intercity telegraph, the first telephone, maybe the first commercial electric motor. Instead, as biographer Thomas Coulson wrote, “Like a child ②he went on asking ‘Why?’ without seeking a final answer.” Henry’s greatest discovery was self-induction, which makes possible the transmission of electrical pulses through long wires. He built the first laboratory-size electromagnetic telegraph, and when Samuel Morse was having trouble making ③his Washington-to-Baltimore line work, Henry helped with technical advice, such as using glass to insulate the relays. Electromagnets perfected by Henry were central to Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. After working at Albany Academy and Princeton University, Henry finished ④his career at the Smithsonian Institution. President Lincoln had criticized the Smithsonian as a warehouse of useless curiosities. But after he met Henry, the president declared: “It must be a grand school if it produces such thinkers as ⑤he is.”
Reina was always excited to talk and read about anything related to the Freedom Writers. So when I told her that I was going back to California in April for another session, ①her eyes lit up. When I returned, I told Reina that I had met Maria. I told her how Maria was such a dynamic person and how she turned her life around to become the successful person that ②she is. I also told her that I brought ③her back a copy of The Freedom Writers Diary signed by Maria. Maria also graciously sent along a little inspirational note to Reina. I presented the book and note to Reina in our English class. She was so happy and proud, and the class gave ④her a healthy round of applause. I told Reina that as an English assignment, I thought it would be very appropriate for ⑤her to send Maria a thank-you letter and to let Maria know a little about herself.
When Sameer first contacted his new boss to negotiate, he asked for a salary increase and reimbursement of ①his business school tuition. This matched what other firms were offering, but the boss came back with disappointing news from Human Resources: they weren’t able to grant either request. At that point, Sameer felt the urge to back down. He wanted to be a giver toward his boss, and he was worried that getting more money would harm his boss’s performance or compromise ②his budget. But Sameer had massive debt from student loans, and he felt responsible for his family first. ③He asked again, convincing his boss to lobby Human Resources for the bump in his salary and signing bonus. He ended up getting a $5,000 salary increase and a $5,000 signing bonus increase. By that time, ④his $10,000 signing bonus had expired. Sameer asked for that too, and got it. His boss assured ⑤him that this was the best he could do.
10강 빈칸 추론 ⑴
Since the invention of sociology by August Comte it has been generally recognized that the function of the sociologist is ‘to know’, ‘to predict’ and eventually ‘to act’ on the basis of his predictions, and it has been constantly repeated that the sociologist should abstain from judging the human groups he studies in terms of his personal and cultural values. In spite of this commitment to objectivity, sociologists have been rather abundantly evaluating their ‘human data’, passing judgments on their morality, efficiency, taste. Ethnocentrism ─ a tendency to judge other peoples in terms of one’s ethnic (or national) values ─ was identified as the source of dangerous biases in sociology. American sociologist Robert Bierstedt invented a supplementary term ‘temporocentrism’, meaning a tendency to judge other people in terms of ‘one’s own century, one’s own era or one’s own lifetime’. But even these two concepts are not sufficient to describe all types of biases resulting from investigators’ unconscious ______________.
A well-known conductor once had trouble with his tuba players. Their performance was lackluster. They seemed disconnected from the other musicians. In frustration, the conductor called the lead player to the front of the orchestra pit while the assistant conductor continued the rehearsal. As the conductor began his plea for increased attention and professionalism, the tuba player held his finger to his lips, signaling the conductor to stop talking. As the tuba player listened to the rest of the orchestra, a smile crossed his face. “Got it!” he exclaimed. Without another word he returned to his seat and picked up his instrument. Turning to the other tuba players, he whispered, “You guys know what is going on while we oom pa pa, oom pa pa? Those violins over there are going duh da-da-da duh, duh da-da-da duh,” and he hummed the beautiful Viennese waltz tune he had just heard for the first time. ______________ made the difference. From the tuba player’s previous perspective, the conductor’s requests had seemed meaningless. Sometimes we have to change our location before we change our perspective.
A senior manager developed a new information system for his company’s manufacturing process. To implement it he needed the agreement of all the plant managers across the country. Everyone agreed except for the manager of the largest plant in Dallas, who told him: “I don’t want your people fooling around in my business. The only way things get done around here is when I’m in control. I can do the job better on my own.” Frustrated, the systems manager reacted by threatening to take the matter to the company president, but that only enraged the plant manager. The end result: The systems manager’s appeal to the company president backfired, since it implied the manager ______________. What’s more, the president refused to intervene, and the new information system languished on the drawing board.
The championship-level players of Rock Paper Scissors (RPS) seem to place a lot of importance on strategies that deliberately depart from randomization, and try to exploit the other player’s attempts to interpret patterns. How successful are these attempts? One kind of evidence would come from ______________. If some players are better at deploying nonrandom strategies, they should do well in contest after contest, year after year. The World RPS Society does not “have the manpower to record how each competitor does at the Championships and the sport is not developed enough so that others track the information. In general, there have not been too many consistent players in a statistically significant way, but the Silver medalist from 2003 made it back to the final 8 the following year.” This suggests that the elaborate strategies do not give any persistent advantage.
I saw her duck. This can mean either ‘I saw her perform the act of ducking’ or ‘I saw the duck that belongs to her.’ The ambiguity between these two readings results from a number of coincidences, most notably the two meanings of the word her, which can be either the accusative or the possessive form of the third person singular pronoun in English, and of the word duck, which is both a noun that refers to a type of waterbird, and a verb for a certain action. There’s little reason to believe ambiguity like this tells us anything interesting about English or about language in general. While it might pose a problem for a computer, it seldom does for ordinary folks. In an actual conversation, ______________ would almost certainly clear up the meaning of a sentence like this. Wittgenstein observed this when he made the claim that philosophical problems arise when language “goes on holiday” ─ that is, when it’s removed from the meaningful activities or “language games” in which it normally functions.
Like product quality, once an organization has a reputation for poor service, it ______________. Many bus users have defected to other means of transport, particularly cars, over the last ten to fifteen years. Despite the high running costs of cars, the congested roads, and the difficulty of parking them in cities, customers were fed up with waiting at bus stops for buses that never arrived, or arrived so overdue that two came together. They were tired of sitting on grubby seats and having to wipe a hole in the condensation to see out of the window. They were unimpressed by the unfriendly drivers and the noise, smells, and vibration from vehicles which were long past their sell-by dates. Huge numbers of ex-bus-users still believe it to be like this despite the investment bus companies have made in new vehicles which are cleaner, faster, quieter, and more comfortable. Old opinions die hard and it will take a major shift in opinion (or legislation) to get people back on buses.
11강 빈칸 추론 ⑵
When elite performers engage in deliberate practice, they set a specific performance improvement goal, and they engage in a task that provides immediate feedback. Moreover, deliberate practice involves focusing on the things that ______________. Many of us tend to practice that at which we already excel in our leisure sport activities. Ericsson and his colleagues point out that “Research across domains shows that it is only by working at what you can’t do that you turn into the expert you want to become.” Consider the example of basketball legend Larry Bird. When he entered the National Basketball Association, he did not have a strong left-handed shot. He worked on it relentlessly over the years. As it turned out, he made several of the most clutch shots of his career with his left hand in critical playoff games. The practice paid off handsomely.
I would like to introduce what I’ve come to call the lasagna principle ─ the notion that our capacity to enjoy different activities is limited and unique. Lasagna is my favorite food, and every time I visit my parents, my mother prepares a tray of it. This does not, however, mean that I want to eat lasagna all day and every day. The same principle applies to my favorite activities, such as writing and watching movies, as well as to my favorite people. The mere fact that my family is the most meaningful thing in my life does not mean that spending eight hours a day with them is what would make me happiest; and not wanting to spend all my waking hours with them does not imply that I love them any less. I derive a great deal of pleasure and meaning from being with other people, but I also need my daily quota of solitude. ______________, leads to the highest quality of life.
A piece of evidence that supports the infant’s capacity to understand other people’s emotions is provided by the “still-face” procedure developed by Edward Tronick. In this procedure, the mother is instructed to distort her affective feedback to her infant by assuming an expressionless face (a still face) after a period of normal playful exchanges with her child. The child first becomes unpleasantly surprised to observe the mother’s emotionless expression; the child then attempts to get her attention in an effort to (A) affect to her emotionally blank face. When these efforts fail, the child becomes overtly uncomfortable, distressed, and anxious. Finally, when the mother’s face does not change, the child becomes indifferent, detached, and apathetic. Most infants react physiologically to the mother’s still face with an increased heart rate, which Edward Tronick attributed to (B) of the infant’s goal of relating to others.
In ASL (American Sign Language) the sign for “me” is a point to one’s chest; the sign for “you” is a point to one’s partner. What could be more transparent? One would expect that using “you” and “me” in ASL would be as foolproof as knowing how to point, which all babies, deaf and hearing, do before their first birthday. But for the deaf children Laura Ann Petitto studied, pointing is not pointing. The children used the sign of pointing to their conversational partners to mean “me” at exactly the age at which hearing children use the spoken sound you to mean “me.” The children were ______________; the fact that it pointed somewhere did not register as being relevant. This attitude is appropriate in learning sign languages; in ASL, the pointing handshape is like a meaningless consonant or vowel, found as a component of many other signs, like “candy” and “ugly.”
A rough measure of people’s emotional state can be found by counting words in their trauma essays that signify positive emotion (e.g., love, care, happy) and negative emotion (e.g., sad, pain, anger). The results from six writing studies were somewhat unexpected. Overall, the more people used positive emotions while writing about emotional upheavals, the more their physical and mental health improved in the weeks and months after the experiment. Negative emotion words showed a different pattern. People whose physical health improved the most from writing used a moderate number of negative emotion words. That is, people who expressed negative emotion language at very high rates did not benefit from writing ─ almost as if they were awash in their unhappiness. By the same token, those who used very few negative emotion words did not benefit ─ perhaps a sign that they were not acknowledging the emotional impact of their topic. The emotional findings, then, suggest that to gain the most benefit from writing about life’s traumas, ______________.
In recent years, many organizations have adopted NASA’s strategy of using technology to open up their innovation challenges and opportunities to more eyeballs. This phenomenon goes by several names, including ‘open innovation’ and ‘crowdsourcing,’ and it can be remarkably (A) . The innovation scholars Lars Bo Jeppesen and Karim Lakhani studied 166 scientific problems posted to InnoCentive, all of which had stumped their home organizations. They found that the crowd assembled around InnoCentive was able to solve forty-nine of them, for a success rate of nearly 30 percent. They also found that people whose expertise was far away from the apparent domain of the problem were more likely to submit winning solutions. In other words, it seemed to actually help a solver to be ‘marginal’ ─ to have education, training, and experience that were not obviously (B) for the problem.
12강 연결사 추론
The easiest savings at the office come from not using paper that’s unwanted or unneeded. In an experiment at its Swiss headquarters, for example, Dow Europe cut office paper flow by about 30% in six weeks simply by discouraging unneeded information. (A) , mailing lists were eliminated and senders of memos got back receipts indicating whether each recipient had wanted the information. Taking those and other small steps, Dow was also able to increase labor productivity by a similar proportion because people could focus on what they really needed to read. (B) , Danish hearing-aid maker Oticon saved upwards of 30% of its paper as a by-product of redesigning its business processes to produce better decisions faster. Setting the default on office printers and copiers to double-sided mode reduced AT&T’s paper costs by about 15%. Recently developed copiers and printers can even strip off old toner and printer ink, permitting each sheet to be reused about ten times.
Americans seldom offer toasts when dining or drinking, except perhaps on New Year’s Eve or if you are the best man at a wedding. In other countries, (A), it is more common and therefore it is wise to be prepared. At a Chinese meal, for example, the apex of the multi-course meal is in the middle when the shark’s fin soup is served. It is also the customary time to present toasts. Here are some guidelines for toasting wherever you are in the world. The host toasts first. If at a dinner, rise at your place. Keep the toast short. Comment on the graciousness and hospitality of your hosts, the friendship between countries, and the value of good relations both personal and in business. It can be a moment when just the right sentiment can be expressed that will be both memorable and lasting. (B), a well-delivered toast is worth anticipating, even to the point of developing a small repertoire for different occasions.
Plato divided the world into an “apparent” world that appears to us through our senses, and a “real” world that we can grasp through the intellect. For Plato, the world we perceive through the senses is not “real” because it is changeable and subject to decay. Plato suggests that there is also an unchanging, permanent “real world” that can be attained with the help of the intellect. This idea comes from Plato’s study of mathematics. The form or idea of a triangle, (A) , is eternal and can be grasped by the intellect. We know that a triangle is a three-sided, two-dimensional figure whose angles add up to 180˚, and that this will always be true, whether anyone is thinking about it or not and however many triangles exist in the world. (B) , the triangular things that do exist in the world (such as sandwiches, pyramids, and triangular shapes drawn on a chalkboard), are triangular only insofar as they are reflections of this idea or form of the triangle.
Our social relationships outside of our love and professional lives are important to our lives. If we use our leisure time well, we generally are in contact with other people. Friendships and acquaintanceships will develop together where we can form communities with the same interests to develop our abilities and pursue common goals as, for example, those embodied in political, religious, and economic groups. Here a collaborative and helpful attitude is essential. Goals that are reached as a team can be deeply satisfying. (A) , conversations with people of different interests and areas of expertise can be very stimulating and the leisurely contact with people not related to our work environment or our family can be enriching. No, we definitely do not have to be alone and should not be alone, because mental health always leads toward other people. (B) , let us engage ourselves fully in the life task of community and consequently contribute to our inner peace and the peace of others through the development of an encouraging attitude toward self and others.
Although the well-being of societies has hitherto been judged according to economic measures, economic indicators alone are not enough to reveal the quality of life within nations. While income has steadily climbed over the past 50 years, and the gross domestic product (GDP) has tripled, happiness has remained virtually flat. (A) , a recent study utilizing the Gallup World Poll found that life satisfaction increased when national wealth increased, but enjoyment of life experienced little change. This discrepancy between happiness and economic growth is important when one considers that people rank happiness ahead of money as a life goal. However, it is even more significant when one examines the large body of research suggesting that high levels of subjective well-being are not only good in and of themselves, but that they actually produce beneficial societal outcomes. (B) , while monetary considerations are currently dominant in policy debates, other goals should be kept in mind.
The relationship between music and dance parallels that between speech and gesture. Just as speech is composed of linguistic and gestural components, music necessarily includes a gestural component ─ a rhythmical movement of the body we call “dance” or the “playing” an instrument. Music, like language, is multimodal. Many deaf people, (A) , enjoy dancing by feeling the rhythm in their bodies. Just as there can be language without speech, there can be music without sound. Musical behavior can be expressed through voice or other body movements that range from simple swaying to dancing, or from clapping to the skillful manipulation of purpose-built objects such as violins or pianos. Evidence from neuroimaging shows that attentive listening to musical sounds engages, to a certain extent, aspects of the action system in the brain. (B) , whenever we attend to music, our bodies prepare to dance. Gerhard Kubik, a music ethnologist, put it simply: “Music is a pattern of sound as well as a pattern of body movement, both in creating this sound and in responding to it in dance.”
13강 무관한 문장 고르기
Claude Bernard provides a detailed account of his discovery of ‘the glycogenetic function of the liver’─the capacity of the liver to produce sugar. Bernard had observed, while carrying out tests, that there was sugar in the blood of the rabbits he dissected. ①He wondered about the origin of this sugar: did it come from ingested food or was it produced by the body, and, if so, which organ was responsible? ②He separated his rabbits into three groups: some were given food containing sugar; others were given food with no sugar; and the least fortunate were placed on a starvation diet. ③After several days, he analyzed the blood of the rabbits, only to discover that, in every case, there was the same amount of sugar in their blood. ④He experienced problems, such as tiredness, loss of eyesight, and kidney problems. ⑤This indicated that glucose did not derive from food, but was produced by the body.
Hamlet’s claim that “there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so” is largely, but not entirely, accurate. ①The fact that what we choose to focus on ─ our perception ─ matters so much does not mean that just anybody can find happiness in any situation. ②For example, there are people who, regardless of their focus, will not derive meaning and pleasure from investment banking or from teaching. ③Teachers affect students in indirect and subtle ways as well as in the more direct ways that typically come to mind when one thinks about teaching. ④Of course there are also certain circumstances people find themselves in ─ stuck in an oppressive workplace, an oppressive relationship, or an oppressive country for that matter ─ that make the possibility of finding happiness extremely difficult. ⑤Happiness is a product of the external as well as of the internal, of what we choose to pursue as well as of what we choose to perceive.
The risk of a particular event is defined as the product of the probability of that event’s occurring multiplied by the consequences should it actually occur. ①Consequences, such as damages to people, property, economic activity, and public service, may be expressed in a variety of scales. ②If, for example, we are considering the risk from earthquake damage to a nuclear reactor, we may evaluate the consequences in terms of radiation released, which can further be translated into damage to people and other living things. ③Natural events such as volcanic eruptions and meteorite impacts can cause earthquakes, but the majority of naturally-occurring earthquakes are triggered by movement of the earth’s plates. ④In any such assessment, it is important to calculate the risks of various possible events ─ in this example, earthquakes of various magnitudes. ⑤A large earthquake has a lower probability of occurring than does a small one, but its consequences are likely to be greater.
Wolves are clever at ambushing prey; watching the direction that a herd of prey is moving, they can hide near that possible pathway. This means that when the wolves spring out of hiding, they will be near to striking distance of the prey and can catch the prey before prey defenses are organized. ①Indeed, it is this inclination that is thought to be the basis for what has become, through artificial selection, the highly skilled herding ability seen in herding dogs. ②Wolves have become an increasing concern for farmers because of the rise in their population during recent years. ③They work with the shepherd, circling around the “prey,” giving them the “eye” (a stare that immobilizes sheep), and generally cooperating with the shepherd to move and control the sheep. ④It is the final sequence ─ the kill ─ that is thought not to be a desirable attribute of a herding dog. ⑤The rest of the patterns can be discerned in many wild cooperative canid hunters.
Many Greek females received formal education. ①Female poets such as Sappho and Korinna testify to the literacy and talent exhibited by at least upper-class Greeks. ②About seven vases from Classical Athens depicting scenes of daily life (including a mother hitting her son hard with a sandal) show women either reading or, more specifically, holding written texts in front of them while listening to recitation. ③It seems likely that some women learned to read at least for the purpose of helping to educate their own children. ④In the early classic period, popular scenes begin to disappear, and more and more of the vase painters seem to be competing not among themselves but with the famous painters of their day. ⑤One such vase painting shows a woman looking at a book roll while a young boy faces her ─ an early quizzing scenario from ancient Athens.
By the late 1940s, it was clear to the officials at Indian Affairs that a program of physical education that included Euro-Canadian sports and games could help move its agenda along. ①Federal officials believed that organized sports and games would facilitate the integration of Native youth into the public school system by teaching them the physical competencies that youth in the public school system were already mastering. ②Federal officials also believed that sports and games would help smooth the progress of Native assimilation into broader Canadian society by bringing Native and non-Native people into contact with each other through competition. ③Rather than selecting community leaders, Native people often sought consensus in decision making among those who were respected for their skills and abilities. ④As a technique of bio-power, competitive sport was an efficient way to manage the social, political, and economic problem facing the government: how to encourage Native assimilation into broader Canadian society. ⑤Thus, in 1949, Indian Affairs created the new administrative position of supervisor of physical education and recreation within its bureaucracy.
14강 글의 순서
‘One swallow doesn’t make a summer.’ You might think this phrase comes from William Shakespeare or another great poet. It sounds as if it should.
(A) Happiness for Aristotle wasn’t a matter of short-term joy. Surprisingly, he thought that children couldn’t be happy. This sounds absurd. If children can’t be happy, who can?
(B) But it reveals how different his view of happiness was from ours. Children are just beginning their lives, and so haven’t had a full life in any sense. True happiness, he argued, required a longer life.
(C) In fact, it’s from Aristotle’s book The Nicomachean Ethics, so called because he dedicated it to his son Nicomachus. The point he was making was that just as it takes more than the arrival of one swallow to prove that summer has come, and more than a single warm day, so a few moments of pleasure don’t add up to true happiness.
When biologists began to study the distribution of marine life, it seemed natural to suppose that warm waters were more hospitable than cold waters.
(A) Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist, rejected his findings, saying that Hensen’s sampling techniques were faulty, but other scientists checked them, found them to be correct, and accepted that Hensen had been right, and that cold seawater is much richer in life than warm seawater.
(B) After all, Antarctica has no native land mammals because the climate is too cold and there is no food for them. There are land mammals living in the Arctic, but there are far fewer native Arctic species than there are species native to warmer climes farther south. That is what biologists believed, but no one had actually checked whether it was true.
(C) The first person to do so was the German zoologist Victor Hensen. Between 1871 and 1891, Hensen led several expeditions to Greenland, the Baltic and North Seas, and to the tropical regions of the Atlantic Ocean. To everyone’s surprise, Hensen found that life was more abundant in cold waters than in warm waters.
People make ample use of searching images. One unexpected context is sorting. Suppose you have a bag of small hardware ─ screws, nails, nuts, bolts, and so on ─ and you decide to organize them into little jars.
(A) So the sorting sequence is nonrandom, producing runs of items of a single type. It is a faster, more efficient technique, and much of the increased efficiency is due to the use of searching images.
(B) But what most people do is very different. They quickly pick out a whole series of items of the same type, making a handful of, say, small screws. They put them in the jar and then go back and do the same for a different kind of item.
(C) You dump the stuff out on a table and begin separating the items into coherent groups. It is possible to do this by randomly picking up individual objects, one by one, identifying each one, and then moving it to the appropriate jar.
Consider the trade “deficits” and “surpluses” of a doctor who likes to golf. The doctor can be expected to run a trade deficit with sporting goods stores, golf caddies, and course operators.
(A) The same principles are at work across nations. A nation will tend to run trade deficits with countries that are low-cost suppliers of items it imports and trade surpluses with countries that buy a lot of the things it exports.
(B) Similarly, the doctor can be expected to run trade surpluses with medical insurers, elderly patients, and those with chronic illnesses. These trading partners are major purchasers of the services provided by the doctor, although the doctor might purchase very little from them.
(C) Why? These suppliers sell items that the golfer-doctor purchases in sizable quantities. The doctor, on the other hand, probably sells few items the sporting goods store purchases.
According to a conservative estimation by the World Health Organization, 1.2 billion people lack access to sufficient quantities of safe water, and 2.6 billion are without adequate sanitation.
(A) Instead, the problem seems to be related to dysfunction in the structure of the legal and administrative institutions. More precisely, they see it as caused by a lack of adequate institutions for the maintenance, pricing, and distribution of rights to land and water.
(B) Consequently, 80 percent of all illnesses in the developing world are estimated to be the result of water-borne diseases, claiming the lives of 1.8 million children every year. An increasing number of experts who study the provision of safe water no longer see this enormous problem as one of engineering.
(C) That is, it is not the lack of technical solutions (pumps, reservoirs, dams, etc.) that is the main obstacle explaining why such large numbers of mainly poor people in developing countries lack access to safe water. Neither do they see the problem as the lack of a natural supply of clean water.
An independent artist is probably the one who lives closest to an unbounded creative situation. Many artists have considerable freedom from external requirements about what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and why.
(A) Such choices are not made to limit creativity, but rather to cultivate it. When everything is possible and nothing is given, creativity has no friction, nothing to work with, nothing to build on.
(B) Creativity is strange in that it finds its way in any kind of situation, no matter how restricted. Metaphorically speaking, the same amount of water flows faster and stronger through a narrow strait than across the open sea.
(C) At the same time, however, we know that artists usually restrict themselves quite forcefully by choice of material and form of expression. To make the choice to express a feeling by carving a specific form from a rock, without the use of high technology or colors, restricts the artist significantly.
15강 주어진 문장 넣기
But if the students were asked to spot first the crosses, and then the forms, the process went almost twice as quickly.
Unfortunately, multitasking is one of the surest ways to waste time. Our efficiency plummets when we try to juggle even two simple tasks at the same time, as Yuhong Jiang, a psychologist at Harvard University, demonstrated in an impressive experiment. ( ① ) She asked students to identify both colored crosses and geometric shapes, such as triangles and circles. ( ② ) At first, this task seemed laughably simple to the young academics at this elite university. ( ③ ) But they changed their minds when they realized how slow they were and how many mistakes they were making. ( ④ ) The participants needed almost a second of reaction time to press a button when they saw colored crosses and shapes at the same time. ( ⑤ ) Other series of experiments have shown that multitasking also makes more errors slip in.
Thus it is harder for people to predict how an emotionally unstable person will act from day to day.
People working under the direction of an emotionally unstable leader hide or minimize bad news because that bad news leads to unpleasant interactions. As a result, the lines of communication within an organization suffer; information is not being given to everyone who needs it. ( ① ) The problem is that if group members hide small problems from leadership, those problems may not get rectified until they become big problems. ( ② ) It is important for an organization to be comfortable coming to a leader with small problems, secure in the knowledge that they will be greeted with a problem-solving mind-set. ( ③ ) In addition, studies suggest that emotionally unstable people are less consistent in the way they display their personality characteristics than emotionally stable people. ( ④ ) Good leaders need to create an environment with consistent expectations for the people working for them. ( ⑤ ) Emotional instability gets in the way of this goal.
Unreasonable problems, in contrast, cannot be treated this way because the task contains some “trick” or “catch” that must be understood before someone can arrive at a solution.
Not all problem-solving tasks are the same. Besides distinctions such as those between well-defined and ill-defined problems, problems can be distinguished according to whether they are reasonable or unreasonable. Reasonable problems are of the kind that can be solved in a step-by-step manner. ( ① ) A crossword puzzle is of this nature. ( ② ) Given a sufficient vocabulary, the empty spaces can be filled in one by one. ( ③ ) This feature derails any step-by-step process that proceeds without the realization that “things aren’t what they seem.” ( ④ ) Hence, successful problem solving in these cases requires that the person acquire an insight into the nature of the trick. ( ⑤ ) Riddles provide commonplace instances of such insight problems, such as the classic riddle that the Sphinx posed to Oedipus.
However, they differ in several subtle ways, including the fact that the main goal for the two situations is slightly different.
Academic presentations, such as those given at conferences, or by invited guests at universities or research institutions, are similar to a typical academic lecture. ( ① ) In both cases, clarity of presentation and understanding of the subject are extremely important. ( ② ) Rehearsal and careful preparation are also needed no matter who your audience is. ( ③ ) In a lecture, the goal is to convey information clearly, directly, and without any confusion. ( ④ ) In an academic presentation, the goal is also to convey information but to do so while impressing the audience. ( ⑤ ) The need to impress the audience will require using techniques such as the Widrow Maneuver, or showing impressive pictures and videos in order to illustrate your competence in a given subject matter.
When the public hears stories like these, reactions are varied.
Each year about 50,000 species of plants and animals disappear from the planet as a result of human activity. ( ① ) Conservationists and environmental activists have been trying to elevate the priority given to the protection of the environment and its inhabitants for many years, but the public, politicians, and criminologists have largely ignored their efforts. ( ② ) Various media outlets report stories of people tying themselves to trees in order to save spotted owls, or of large-scale construction projects that are halted because an endangered frog’s habitat might be in jeopardy. ( ③ ) Some see these actions as moral victories while others see them as simply absurd. ( ④ ) As more prominent public figures become active in the fight against crimes involving nature, the problem of illegally trading endangered species will gain prominence in society. ( ⑤ ) As an example, the awarding of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize to former U.S. Vice President Al Gore and the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reminded people that environmental causes are noteworthy.
This is shorthand for saying that the weather is a chaotic system.
Computer models have revolutionized weather forecasting. But if you set a computer running on a set of data describing the atmosphere, it would still be foolish to think it will produce a perfect forecast for all time. ( ① ) In practice, even today’s forecasts drop fast in reliability when they get more than a week ahead. ( ② ) This is described as the forecast “losing its skill”. ( ③ ) Part of the difficulty is that the input information for the forecast is imperfect, but a more basic objection is the “butterfly problem”. ( ④ ) It is not chaotic in the way that the top of my desk is chaotic. ( ⑤ ) In this context, “chaotic” means that it is never possible to allow for every minor immeasurable fluctuation in the input conditions, so that a butterfly flapping its wings over the Amazon could in the end produce a storm in New York.
16강 요약문 완성
If we were to remove the concept of ‘consistency’ from the expected virtues of politicians, much political commentary would cease overnight. A lot of political criticism is on the basis that a politician is not consistent with his own ideas, or what he said two years ago, or his party line, or his electoral promises. A politician might reply, with reason, that he or she had a change of mind, or that changed circumstances require a change of opinion. Commentators are unhappy with that because it removes one of the main frames of criticism. Such commentators would claim that the politician was elected on a certain basis and must stick to that. In some cases this is undoubtedly true, but in many cases changing a view is a sign of the intelligent political behavior for which most people vote.
An economy as big as the United States can afford to place reasonable bets in all areas where it looks as if technology can be pushed forward. In contrast, a country as small as Israel cannot. The U.S. research and development budget is three times the entire GDP of Israel. Israel has to focus, concentrate its money, and place its bets on a very limited number of technologies if it is to spend enough money on any one technology to have any chance of success. If it spends very small sums in all areas, it will end up wasting all of its resources. But if it must focus its bets, in what areas should it focus? No one knows. Since small countries and companies have to bet in what is an intrinsically riskier, more uncertain environment, they not surprisingly tend to bet less.
Until half a century ago physicists could be confident that their work only helped to describe the beautiful balance of material creation, and if it had any practical applications at all, they were bound to be beneficial to humankind. Niels Bohr, one of the greatest and most humanitarian among them, insisted until the early 1940s that the experiments with nuclear fission he was conducting in his Copenhagen laboratory could never be used as the basis for weapons. Of course after 1945 no physicist could ever again feel complacent about the possible misuses of his work. Perhaps this is one explanation for the subsequent migration of brilliant young scientists away from physics and into molecular biology, which likewise promised only benefits to humankind. But as genetic engineering comes of age, bringing with it the possibility of various forms of eugenics, even this choice appears to have its dangers.
We’ve all experienced the psychological effects of the scarcity principle in our daily lives. However, there is a less tangible domain in which the scarcity principle operates both subtly and powerfully: the domain of information. Studies have demonstrated that information that is exclusive is viewed as both more valuable and more persuasive. For example, in a study conducted by researcher Amram Knishinsky, wholesale beef buyers more than doubled their orders when they were informed that a shortage of Australian beef was likely due to weather conditions there ─ an understandable response in a competitive market. Yet, when those purchasers were told that the information came from an exclusive source and was not generally available to the rest of the public (both pieces of scarcity information were true), they increased their orders by a remarkable 600 percent!
Film analysis offers several clear benefits. It allows us to reach valid conclusions on a movie’s meaning and value; it helps us to capture the experience of a film in our minds; and it sharpens our critical judgments overall. But the ultimate purpose of analysis, and its greatest benefit, is that it opens up new channels of awareness and new depths of understanding. It seems logical to assume that the more understanding we have, the more completely we will appreciate art. If the love we have for an art form rests on rational understanding, it will be more solid, more enduring, and of greater value than love based solely on irrational and totally subjective reactions. This is not to claim that analysis will create a love of films where no such love exists. Love of movies does not emerge from a book or from any special critical approach. It comes only from that secret, personal union between film and viewer in a darkened room.
In case you’ve got a parole hearing coming up, make sure it’s first thing in the morning or right after lunchtime. Why? According to a study, judges on parole boards tend to grant parole more frequently when they are most refreshed. Investigating a large set of parole rulings in Israel, the researchers found that parole boards were more likely to grant parole during their first cases of the day and just after their lunch breaks. Why? The default decision of parole boards is not to grant parole. But it seems that when the judges felt rejuvenated, which was first thing in the morning or after just having eaten and taken a break, they had an increased ability to override their standard decision, make a more effortful decision, and grant parole more frequently. But over the many difficult decisions of the day, as their cognitive burden was building up, they opted for the simpler, default decision of not granting parole.
17강 장문의 이해 ⑴
We’ve seen often that early training can produce high achievers who are surprisingly young, and research has shown us how that happens. We’ve grown accustomed to watching sixteen-year-old pianists, chess players, and gymnasts who are amazingly good. Yet why is it that in certain other fields, notably business, we never see sixteen-year-old wonders? The glib answer is that a kid of that age can’t legally sign a check or a lease; in fact that answer embodies larger truths about when to begin training a young person in particular domains, how to do it, and what the principles of early development mean for business and related fields.
The fundamental reason why there are no teenage prodigies in certain domains is that it’s impossible to accumulate enough development time by the teenage years. Sometimes the reason is simply ______________. A five-year-old can practice the piano or violin ─ reduced-size violins are made for that purpose ─ but cannot practice the trombone or double bass because they’re just too big. So world-class trombonists and double-bassists tend to be older. In other cases, a decade of development is not enough. This is the Nobel Prize effect: There are no teenage particle physicists, even though a child can start learning math and science at age five, because acquiring the necessary knowledge these days seems to take at least twenty years.
If you’re like me, this is what happens when you can’t find your umbrella. You first dart around to all the obvious places ─ closet, front door, kitchen ─ exclaiming, “Where could I have left it?” As the mystery deepens you think of other possibilities ─ in the car, in the bathroom? Someone must have “borrowed” it. What you do not do, if you’re like me, is sit down and ask why, when, and where you last had the umbrella.
There is a simple reason why you rush around rather than stop and reconstruct. Thinking is difficult, as it calls not only for recall but for patient analysis. It means questioning assumptions and considering alternatives. Have you in fact actually used the umbrella since last winter? Did you leave it at the office because it was not raining when you came home? You have to step back for a moment and see possibilities in a wider view.
Quite the opposite happens when, instead, you desperately rush about. Your horizons narrow as you focus on immediately finding that umbrella. You lose possession not only of your umbrella but of your perspective, reacting so obsessively that you become a victim of the situation.
In our day-to-day activities most of our thinking is ______________. It is spurred by immediate needs and demands. It takes things as they are; the problem is to adjust to them, make them workable, acceptable. We adjust as best we can ─ to low incomes, aches and pains, the neighborhood, bad weather, problems in school or at the workplace. Our thinking is practical, expedient, sometimes shrewd, and usually short-run. We cope.
During the 1980 Olympics, an American athlete named Eric Heiden took all five gold medals for men’s speed skating. In the first four events Heiden set new Olympic speed records: 38.03 seconds for the 500-meter race; 1 minute 15.18 seconds for the 1,000-meter; 1 minute 55.44 seconds for the 1,500-meter; and 7 minutes 2.29 seconds for the 5,000-meter. In the final event, the 10,000-meter race, Heiden not only broke the Olympic record, but also set a new all-time world speed record of 14 minutes 28.13 seconds.
As amazing as these victories were, they came as no surprise to those who had followed Eric Heiden through the years. Heiden had been winning every time he competed in an amateur race. He was recognized as the greatest men’s speed skater who had ever lived.
Now, you may think that such knowledge would demoralize and deflate skaters who had to compete against Heiden. After all, what was the point of entering a race when you knew in advance you had no chance whatsoever of beating the champion? Depressing, right?
Just the opposite proved true. When Heiden won the 500-meter race, silver medal honors went to Evgeni Kulikov of the USSR, who turned in his personal fastest time ever for the 500-meter race. When Heiden won the 1,000-meter race, the runner-up was Gaetan Boucher of Canada, who clocked his personal fastest time ever for the 1,000-meter.
And so it continued in every race. The silver and bronze medalists who lost to Heiden actually achieved greater personal speeds than ever before simply because they were doing their best to be the equal of Eric Heiden. This phenomenon became known as the Heiden Effect, which now is defined as ______________ by striving to equal a competitor one knows one can never be equal to or surpass.
18강 장문의 이해 ⑵
When Germany invaded Poland in 1939 and World War II was finally unavoidable, Eisenhower was a lieutenant colonel and felt that even with the war and America’s almost inevitable involvement, he had little prospect for advancement. Despite this feeling, two years later, on December 12, 1941, less than a week after the Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor, Eisenhower had been promoted to brigadier general and was ordered to come to Washington by General Marshall, the chief of staff.
Here was the newly appointed chief of staff asking his opinion of the situation in the Philippines where Eisenhower had served for four years. Yet Eisenhower kept (a)his composure and did not reply off the top of his head. He asked General Marshall for a few hours to consider his answer. Eisenhower returned later that afternoon with his recommendation: even though the situation was almost hopeless from a military point of view, (b)he felt that the United States should do everything possible in their defense. Marshall replied, “I agree with you. Do your best to save them.”
Eisenhower was taken aback. (c)He had just stepped off the plane and had no real personal knowledge of the situation. Here was the man who had to make the decision, a man who had been well briefed and was on top of the situation, asking his opinion! Eisenhower was intuitive enough to recognize the importance of the question both for the war effort and for him personally. (d)He said later, “His tone implied that I had been given the problem as a check to an answer he had already reached.”
Eisenhower and Marshall had talked only twice before, once in 1930 and once in 1939. Marshall greeted Eisenhower formally and then outlined the situation that was facing the United States in the Pacific: the devastation of the Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, the invasion of the Philippines, the lack of any effective air strength. (e)He painted a very dim picture of the situation. After he had set the facts before Eisenhower, he looked Eisenhower in the eye and asked, “What should be our general line of action?”
Lucy and Jeff have two sons, aged seven and three. Jeff works full-time and Lucy part-time, mainly from home. With two young children (a)they find themselves weighed down with endless chores. The one thing they always enjoy is vacations, but although they have the time for two short trips a year, they only take one. Why, given that vacations can provide them with so much pleasure? The reason they give is the cost.
All three of them discussed the situation and agreed that it would be best all round if (b)they had two vacations a year together, and that Jeff’s father would pay his share. This second vacation was a big treat and it was expensive, but it added an enormous amount of pleasure not only to Lucy and Jeff’s lives, but to Jeff’s father, and to the lives of the grandchildren, for whose sake, it once appeared, this second vacation was being denied.
Jeff’s father is a widower living four hundred miles from Lucy and Jeff, and they take him with them when they go on vacation. This arrangement works well since it gives them all a chance to be together; Jeff’s father can spend time with his only grandchildren, and Lucy and Jeff can go out together knowing that their children are well looked after. But it does make the vacation expensive because (c)they pay for Jeff’s father. In fact, Jeff’s father could afford to pay for himself, but he is saving the money to pass it on to his grandchildren. Lucy and Jeff therefore pay for him in order to leave their children’s inheritance intact. Is this the best arrangement?
Lucy and Jeff had never asked themselves this question because, at the back of their minds, (d)they felt it would be self-indulgent to have two vacations. It was not until they realized what they were doing that they could begin to think about what was best. Lucy and Jeff thought anew about the situation. They decided that vacations gave them the refreshment needed to tackle their demanding lives. They worked out that (e)they could afford two vacations if Jeff’s father paid for himself.
I was waiting to board an airplane. The line was long and moving slowly. As I stood in a state of impatience, I watched a stewardess guide an elderly couple down the aisle. They were both large people, and it appeared as if (a)the woman had suffered a stroke because her speech was slurred and her posture bent.
It occurred to me that I might have change, but I decided that it would be too big of a hassle to undo my seatbelt and dig my wallet out of my back pocket to search. Just after I reached this decision, I heard the woman with the slurred speech say that she thought (b)she had change. It was the woman I had earlier wished to distance myself from. For several minutes she wrestled with her seatbelt and then her wallet. Finally, she produced change for the twenty, and the stewardess thanked (c)her.
It wasn’t until later, when I paused to review the events of my day, that I was able to fully consider the significance of this event. I recalled my chagrin when I thought that I would have to squeeze in with the oversized couple; and then I recalled my deep humiliation because it was that bent-over woman who had helped the stewardess when it would have been so much easier for me to have done so. (d)That woman was my teacher that day, and I was grateful for her lesson in courtesy and kindness.
A few minutes later, when I approached my seat at the back of the plane, I noticed that the same couple was seated in my row. I confess, now, with some embarrassment, to feeling irritated at the thought that I would have to squeeze in next to them, but, as it turned out, my seat was on the other side of the aisle. Later, about halfway through the flight, a stewardess came down the aisle holding up a $20 bill. (e)She was looking for someone who would change it into smaller bills.
19강 Mini Test 1
Dear Ms. Brown:
We appreciate your letter describing the good work your Montgomery County chapter of the National Reye’s Syndrome Foundation is doing in preventing and treating this serious affliction. Your organization is to be commended for its significant achievements resulting from the efforts of dedicated members. Supporting the good work of your organization and others, although unrelated to our business, is a luxury we have enjoyed in past years. Because of sales declines and organizational downsizing, we’re forced to take a much harder look at funding requests that we receive this year. We feel that we must focus our charitable contributions on areas that relate directly to our business. We are hopeful that the worst days are behind us and that we will be able to renew our support for worthwhile projects like yours next year.
If you look at the history of corporate crises ─ be they financial, product related, or even crises of public confidence ─ you will find that all of these situations had a beginning, the particular event that precipitated the crisis; a middle phase in which a crisis management plan was implemented; and finally, an end, the phase in which business is getting back to normal. The problem is, if you don’t declare an end to the crisis, the public perception will persist that you are still mired in crisis and that your products and services may somehow be affected. If the crisis is severe enough, some people may even assume that you are no longer in business. So, once a crisis has ended, be sure to declare to the public that the crisis is over and normalcy has returned.
Choices about change can only be made in the present. That means that it is important above all to accept where you are now. The first condition, therefore, for fruitful change is that you see clearly where you are at the moment. Do not hide away from present reality. If there are aspects of the present you do not like, you can start to plan how to change: but if you pretend these aspects do not exist, you will never change them. Sometimes you will want to be energetic and active, and will need to know how to exert your will to direct or control the forces around you. At other times a quieter, more accepting form of change may provide what you need, and help you to steer away from turbulent waters into calmer ones. The potential for changing the future can lie only in the present.
One of the first things that designers learn in school is that “form follows function.” And sometimes a designer gets a refresher course on that. Interior designer Melody Davidson installed a new slipcover on a sofa loveseat in her living room, and then she went shopping for pillows to go with it. She found some beauties that had interesting beading and fringe. They also were in the perfect colors. She threw them onto the newly covered loveseat and told herself, “Oh, these look so great!” Her husband went into the living room, sat down, and exclaimed, “Ouch!” As it turns out, leaning against the beading was painful enough that they decided to return the pillows to the store. It’s a common mistake in homes everywhere. Davidson says: “The eye candy is what draws our attention, and we make decisions based on that.”
Some distinctions between good and bad are hardwired into our biology. Infants enter the world ready to respond to pain as bad and to sweet (up to a point) as good. In many situations, however, the boundary between good and bad is a reference point that changes over time and depends on the immediate circumstances. Imagine that you are out in the country on a cold night, inadequately dressed for the torrential rain, your clothes soaked. A stinging cold wind completes your misery. As you wander around, you find a large rock that provides some shelter from the fury of the elements. The biologist Michel Cabanac would call the experience of that moment intensely pleasurable because it functions, as pleasure normally does, to indicate the direction of a biologically significant improvement of circumstances. The pleasant relief will not last very long, of course, and you will soon be shivering behind the rock again, driven by your renewed suffering to seek better shelter.
Giant Trees National and State Parks
■ Dates and Hours of Operation
Giant Trees National and State Parks are open every day. Information centers, campgrounds, and day-use areas maintain seasonal hours of operation.
Sportfishing requires a California fishing license and must follow California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) regulations.
■ Fees and Reservations
Giant Trees National and State Parks collect day-use fees at entrance stations and fees are required for camping at campgrounds; camping reservations may be required. Holders of qualifying park passes may be eligible for discounts.
Permits are required for scientific research, collecting, and commercial activities such as filming. Call 700-456-1234 for more information.
■ Giant Trees Access Road
The gated Giant Trees Access Road is only accessible via free permit available from Thomson Information Center and Henry Information Center. A maximum of 50 permits per day are issued on a first-come, first-served basis.
Looking for a FREE & FUN & FAMILY oriented event this Halloween? Then join us from 4-6 p.m. on Saturday, October 31, 2015 for our annual BLOCK PARTY. There will be food, carnival games, a costume contest (no scary costumes, please) and much more!
■ We need your help! One quick and simple way to get involved is by donating bags of candy. You can drop off your candy donations during the weekends of Oct. 17/18 and Oct. 24/25 at the BLOCK PARTY Van. You will receive a free movie ticket when you help us fill the BLOCK PARTY Van with your donations.
■ Event Parking: In an effort to be great neighbors, please do not park on people’s lawns. There will be a parking team on the day of the event to assist you.
The graph above shows the medal count for the top 10 countries based on total count in the XXII Olympic Winter Games. ①Russia won the most medals including gold, silver, and bronze, while Switzerland earned the least, acquiring one-third of the total number of medals won by Russia. ②Norway was preceded by the United States in the total number of medals, but the number of gold medals for Norway outnumbered that of the United States. ③Canada, ranking fourth in the total medal count, followed Austria in the bronze medal count, but Austria ranked lower than Canada in the total medal count. ④The Netherlands won the same number of gold medals as Germany, but it won one more silver medal and four more bronze medals than Germany. ⑤Among the bottom three countries in the total medal count, Switzerland had the most gold medals.
Lawrence Barrett was born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1838 and worked his way through an apprenticeship at Detroit’s Metropolitan Theatre to an acting debut there in 1853. His New York debut came in 1857 and he quickly moved into leading man roles. After serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, he resumed his acting career with an emphasis on Shakespearean roles: Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Shylock. Slight of build with sunken eyes and a reserved manner, Barrett hardly seemed equipped for the great tragic roles. Yet he was capable of unleashing a burst of passion for dramatic effect. His approach to acting could be seen as intellectualized or coldly calculated, yet his status as a star was never questioned. By all accounts, his great role was Cassius in Julius Caesar. After two decades of touring as a star, he joined forces with Edwin Booth, a famous 19th-century American actor, for two seasons, 1887-1889, serving as tour manager while performing opposite Booth.
The naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin, set himself two major tasks. One was to work out a mechanism ①by which evolution might occur. The mechanism he thought of was natural selection, which is still ②accepted today as the main force behind evolution. His other task was to collect enough evidence to convince people ③that evolution had occurred. Some evidence came from fossils or from plant and animal distribution. Most important was the evidence from living things. This was clear enough to have been noticed by other naturalists, including Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, who wrote in 1836, “All species might have been varieties once, and many varieties are gradually becoming species.” Such casual remarks by naturalists carried ④little weight, but Darwin was more difficult to ignore because he produced so much data. One important piece of evidence was that the same basic pattern of bones ⑤appear in the limbs of all mammals. Such similarities show that they must all be descended from a common ancestor.
Most companies use the same standards for evaluating both routine and innovative work. They use the conventional idea: ①Reward success, punish failure and inaction. This is fine for routine tasks. When known procedures are used by well-trained people, ②failure does signal improper training, weak motivation, or poor leadership. But applying this standard to innovative work ③promotes intelligent risks. The usual reward scheme means that, because people who do routine work succeed most of the time, they are ④glorified as winners. In contrast, people who do innovative work fail a lot. So they not only get few rewards, but they may be denigrated as losers. In many companies, people who do ⑤routine work complain that “if those creative types just acted more like us, they would be more efficient and wouldn’t make all those mistakes!”
Suddenly John’s thoughts drifted away from the self-pity mode and focused on the changes he was noticing in his dream coach. ①He knew deep down inside that there was something wrong with him. In all the years that they had been acquainted, he never once saw his coach wearing a long face. Now, his only trusted confidant was having ②his own problems. He made a habit of dumping all ③his problems on his coach but only one time had the coach opened up and revealed any of his problems. ④He started to feel even more ashamed as he realized just how self-centered he had become. He had never taken the time to reciprocate the friendship and love that had been showered upon ⑤him. He had known his coach for almost five years now and never once inquired as to what made him truly happy.
Information has always been the key resource in our lives. It has allowed us to improve society, medical care, and decision-making, to enjoy personal and economic growth, and to better choose our elected officials. It is also a fairly costly resource to acquire and handle. As knowledge becomes more available
─ and decentralized through the Internet ─ the notions of accuracy and authoritativeness have become ______________. Conflicting viewpoints are more readily available than ever, and in many cases they are disseminated by people who have no regard for facts or truth. Many of us find we don’t know whom to believe, what is true, what has been modified, and what has been examined. We don’t have the time or expertise to do research on every little decision. Instead, we rely on trusted authorities, newspapers, radio, TV, books, sometimes your brother-in-law, the neighbor with the perfect lawn, the cab driver who dropped you at the airport, your memory of a similar experience.... Sometimes these authorities are worthy of our trust, sometimes not.
The Greeks’ focus on the salient object and its attributes led to their failure to understand the fundamental nature of causality. Aristotle explained that a stone falling through the air is due to the stone having the property of “gravity.” But of course a piece of wood tossed into water floats instead of sinking. This phenomenon Aristotle explained as being due to the wood having the property of “levity”! In both cases the focus is exclusively on the object, with no attention paid to the possibility that some force outside the object might be relevant. But the Chinese saw the world as ______________, so their attempts to understand it caused them to be oriented toward the complexities of the entire “field,” that is, the context or environment as a whole. The notion that events always occur in a field of forces would have been completely intuitive to the Chinese. The Chinese therefore had a kind of recognition of the principle of “action at a distance” two thousand years before Galileo articulated it.
20강 Mini Test 2
The notion that ______________ continued through the twentieth century. The country knew, in a vague way, that Franklin Roosevelt had polio, but it wasn’t stressed. Virtually every photograph of him was taken from the waist up; almost none exist of him in a wheelchair. At the beginning of his campaign for the presidency in 1932, he wore leg braces and would appear standing, supported by the arm of his son or an aide until he reached a podium, where he would support himself. The extent of his paralysis was kept hidden. Hidden, too, was his high blood pressure and heart condition. It was present during his first campaign and worsened during his term. Doctors discouraged him from running for his fourth term in 1944, but it was the height of World War II, and he would not be dissuaded. Saying that he could not be distracted from the war effort during the campaign, he sent his vice-president nominee, Harry Truman, out on the stump.
Genetic changes always take many generations, even when fairly strong natural selection is involved. Cultural characteristics, (A) , are not only passed from parents to offspring, but may be passed on from any one individual to another by word of mouth or by writing. So some cultural changes may be adopted quite quickly by a whole population. Transmission of culture is rather like transmission of an infection. Flu and cold epidemics spread very quickly, especially with the large amount of contact that people of all countries of the world now have with each other. In the same way, cultural habits such as pop music preferences and clothing fashions may spread very quickly nowadays, especially through the media of radio and television. (B) , other deep-rooted cultural characteristics of races and racial subgroups are much more difficult to change. These are the cultural patterns that are so resistant to alteration that they have the appearance of being innate.
The early morning is dark and thunderous around Will, the Central London traffic already dense and slow despite the fact that it is barely half past seven. He pulls his collar up around his neck and strides down the street towards the junction, where he is most likely to hail a taxi. The roads are slippery with water, the grey light shining on the mirrored pavement. He curses inwardly as he spies the other suited people standing on the edge of the kerb. Since when did the whole of London begin getting up so early? Everyone has had the same idea. He is wondering where best to position himself when his phone rings. It is Rupert. ‘I’m on my way in. Just trying to get a cab.’ He catches sight of a taxi with an orange light approaching on the other side of the road, and begins to stride towards it, hoping nobody else has seen it.
While the telephone is still the main communication line between customers and companies, the use of other channels such as text messaging, instant messaging, and e-mails is becoming more prevalent. ①In recognition of that expansion, the term call center has been replaced by, or at least is being used interchangeably with, the term contact center within the industry. ②As companies steer more customers to self-service channels such as the Web and IVRs to take care of the simple transactions that were once some of the telephone customer service agent’s most basic functions, the perception among customers is that anything but live phone help is cheaper for companies. ③The employees at the call center are also capable of handling technical questions, even though they are not technically trained. ④That is true, except for e-mail, which is the most time-consuming and therefore most expensive channel for a company to offer. ⑤Instant messaging is cheaper than the phone or e-mails because agents can take care of more than one instant message or text message at a time.
Developments in Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century had enormous significance for sport and athletics. One important source of inspiration came from the Highland Games in Scotland. ①These all-round games, which featured the first hill-race in Scotland, have roots going back to the eleventh century and have survived through the centuries to celebrate Celtic and Scottish culture. ②The tradition was strong in the Scottish Highlands, the homeland of the clans, and the games, including log-carrying, throwing heavy weights and running, spread in the nineteenth century to England, the United States, Canada and the many British colonies with Scottish immigrants. ③Since the Highlands are so mountainous, the some 250,000 people who live there are spread out quite sparsely in the area. ④They are a way of paying homage to the home country and of celebrating solidarity with one’s countrymen. ⑤Modern athletics are partly modeled on the disciplines in the Highland Games.
People hate inflation for the same reasons that Brooklyn Dodger fans hated the New York Yankees: the Yankees were annoying, and they “stole” awards that the Dodgers should have had. Inflation is annoying.
(A) But if inflation creeps up to 8 percent, prices double every nine years. A Harvard education that currently costs $100,000 could cost half a million dollars for an infant born today. To plan for college, does a young couple invest in a ten-year U.S. Treasury note that pays 7 percent interest annually?
(B) If inflation picks up, that may be a bad deal. And don’t forget, if the couple is in the middle class, they will pay about a third of that income to the government in taxes.
(C) It makes it difficult if not dangerous for businesses and households to plan ahead. For instance, how much should the parents of a newborn start saving to pay for her college education? If inflation averages 2 percent, prices double every thirty-six years.
The term liquid crystal sounds to be an oxymoron, like living dead. This analogy can be carried a little further; what liquid crystal refers to is the intermediate state between the stationary (dead) arrangement of molecules in the solid phase and the mobile (living) condition of the liquid state.
(A) When its crystals were heated they melted at 145.5˚C to form a curious cloudy, viscous liquid which on further heating suddenly changed again at 178.5˚C to give the clear fluid of the liquid state.
(B) The transition between these two states occurs at a specific temperature known as the melting point. In 1888, an Austrian botanist Frederich Reinitzer found that the solid phase of cholesteryl benzoate had two melting points.
(C) He told a physicist colleague Otto Lehmann what he had seen and Lehmann then observed the changes under a polarizing microscope. He saw that something strange was happening: the cloudy viscous liquid exhibited a range of colors. It was Lehmann who described them as fliessende Kristalle (liquid crystals). At the time they were merely a chemical curiosity with no apparent application; today they support a billion dollar industry.
However, insiders may be too tightly wedded to a particular mental model of how to do business.
In his latest research, Joseph Bower argues that chief executives may even find highly capable successors at the periphery of their organizations. ( ① ) Bower reconsiders the notion of hiring an insider versus an outsider as the new chief executive. ( ② ) An insider offers the benefit of a wealth of experience in the business and a deep understanding of the firm’s culture and values. ( ③ ) That cognitive inflexibility might not serve the firm well if it experiences a major shift in the external environment. ( ④ ) Outsiders clearly bring a fresh perspective, but they may not always have the adequate experience or fit the firm’s culture. ( ⑤ ) Bower notes that many successful succession processes involve the hiring of an executive who has spent extensive time at the periphery of the organization, working in foreign markets, new ventures, and the like.
From ethics textbooks to professional association codes to our everyday life, any discussion of moral choices is dominated by the use of rules. If we’re asked to explain why we decided to tell the painful, unvarnished truth to a friend, we might say, “Honesty is the best policy.” But if we’re asked why we decided to shade the truth we might say, “If you can’t say anything nice, don’t say anything at all.” It’s clearly not a rule that is telling us what to do. Both maxims are good rules of thumb, but we don’t talk about why we picked one and not the other in any particular case. “Better safe than sorry.” But “He who hesitates is lost.” “A penny saved is a penny earned.” But “Don’t be penny wise and pound foolish.” When we hear the maxim, we nod. End of story. It’s as if stating the rule is sufficient to explain why we did what we did.
Many see the opportunity afforded by our access to cyberspace to communicate freely, easily, and inexpensively with the whole world as a triumph of democracy. Others fear that the Internet might shape our lives for the worse in ways that will become completely clear only with the passing of time. Either way, it’s clear that online communication has triggered a new magnitude of rudeness. The virtual world allows us to express our hostility without revealing our identities. Anonymity makes millions of us digital snipers. To paraphrase Odysseus’s words to the Cyclops in Greek mythology, “Our name is Nobody.” We are Nobodies communicating with Nobodies. Snideness is the order of the day.
Even when we communicate with people we know, we are less restrained because we don’t have to deal with their reactions the way we would if they were present (even as a voice on the phone). Thinking about what happens online as not “really real,” but rather as taking place in an alternate reality, gives many of us ______________. This is when life feels like a video game, where everybody gets hit but nobody gets hurt. Whatever the reasons might be, millions of digital residents believe that (or at least act as though) on the Net anything can be said about anybody and to anybody at any time. The digital world seems to have become a repository of our collective moral toxins. What happens on the Net, however, does not stay on the Net. The “everything goes” mode of online communication is inevitably causing a relaxing of standards in the offline world.
I often work with the Los Angeles Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (LASPCA) and if I’m having a meeting there, I always go through the shelter unannounced so they’re not fixing it up for my benefit. I just want to see how it is day to day. One day about eighteen years ago, I did just that en route to my meeting. After walking through and seeing all the animals, I was just about to exit when I noticed a cage on top of a cabinet with this beautiful little shih tzu puppy in there.
Three months down the road, I got a call. They said the time was up and the little dog was eligible for adoption. I said, “When can I pick Panda up?” I hadn’t even been thinking of a name ─ it just came out. Panda. At the time I had two male dogs. I worried that Panda would come in and be intimidated, but the introduction went smoothly. And (a)she took over and ran the house until she was sixteen and three-fourths.
The woman took the store to court, and that little shih tzu puppy closed the pet store ─ all by herself! The puppy, however, couldn’t be adopted until the trial was settled, which took another three months. So during that time, the woman got another dog, because (b)she wanted to adopt. Meanwhile, at LASPCA I asked if they would let me know the minute the trial was settled and (c)she was up for adoption.
I said, “Where did (d)she come from?” The director said, “She’s not up for adoption yet. She’s a cruelty case. A woman paid a lot of money for her at a pet store, but when she brought the dog home, the little girl was so sick (e)she couldn’t stand up. The woman took the dog back to the pet store, and they said, ‘Oh, I’m so sorry, we’ll take care of her and give you another dog.’” Thank goodness, the woman went back the next day to see how the puppy was, and it was not being treated or nursed back to health ─ it was in the window for sale!